– Omega point
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin‘s non-scientific Omega point theory describes the gradual development of the universe from subatomic particles to human society, which he viewed as its final stage and goal.
– Gaia hypothesis
Teilhard de Chardin’s ideas have been seen as being connected to the more specific Gaia theory by James Lovelock, who proposed that the living and nonliving parts of Earth can be viewed as a complex interacting system with similarities to a single organism. The Gaia hypothesis has also been viewed by Lynn Margulis and others as an extension of endosymbiosis and exosymbiosis. This modified hypothesis postulates that all living things have a regulatory effect on the Earth’s environment that promotes life overall.
Futurists have often viewed scientific and technological progress as a continuation of biological evolution. Among these, transhumanists often view such technological evolution itself as a goal in their philosophy, possibly in the form of a technological singularity.