The Fox Wars were two 18th-century wars between the Fox Indians and the French (mainly through their Indian allies), which occurred in modern Michigan and Wisconsin, U.S.A.. The First Fox War (1712-1716) broke out with the French when the Fox numbered some 3,500. After the Second Fox War of 1728-1733, the remaining 1500 Fox were reduced to 500. They found shelter with the Sac and retained their enmity toward the French.
The Fox controlled the Fox River system. This river was vital for the fur trade between French Canada and the interior of North America, because it allowed travel from the Bay of Green Bay in Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River. The French wanted rights to use the river system to gain access to both the Mississippi and trade contacts with tribes to the west.