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1.8 Southwest

Southwestern North America is a dry, dramatic land of red-and-orange mountains, huge flat rocks and deep, narrow river valleys called canyons. This was the land of the Pueblo peoples who belonged to many tribes such as the Zuni and Hopi. The men were farmers and hunters; the women made fine crafts.

Pueblo means “village” in Spanish. Indians were given this name because in the 16th century they lived in huge “apartment block” type of houses, each housing a whole village community and that means up to a thousand people. The Pueblo structures were made of stone and adobe or sun-dried bricks. From 1200 to 1400 AD the Apache and the Navajo settled near the Pueblos, living first as hunters and raiders. Soon enough the Navajo become farmers and weavers and they also bred herds of sheep. Some Apache did the same but others refused to change their warrior lifestyle. Women learned to make beautiful baskets and jewellery.