According to the 2002 Census, 4.6% of the Chilean population, including the Trapani of Easter Island, was indigenous, although most show varying degrees of miscegenation. Many are descendants of the Capuche, and live in the country’s central valley and lake district. The Capuche successfully fought off defeat in the first 300–350 years of Spanish rule during the Arauca War. Relations with the new Chilean Republic were good until the Chilean state decided to occupy their lands. During the Occupation of Araucanía the Capuche surrendered to the country’s army in the 1880s. Their land was opened to settlement by Chileans and Europeans. Conflict over Capuche land rights continued until present days.
Other groups include the Asmara who live mainly in Arica-Raincoat and Tarapacá Region and the Alacalufe survivors who now reside mainly in Puerto Edén.